Evaluation of the W-metric routing using RPL protocol in LLNS

Evaluation of the W-metric routing using RPL protocol in LLNS. IIUM Engineering Journal, 19 (2). pp. 80-89. ISSN 1511-788X (2018)


The current de-facto routing protocol over Low Power and Lossy Networks (LLN) developed by the IETF Working Group (6LOWPAN), is named as Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy networks (RPL). RPL in the network layer faces throughput challenges due to the potential large networks, number of nodes, and that multiple coexisting applications will be running in the same physical layer. In this study, a node metric for RPL protocol based on the node’s Queue Backlogs is introduced, which leads to a better throughput performance while maintaining the delay and the ability to use with differentnetwork applications. This metric depends on the length of Packet Queue of the nodes with the consideration of other link and node metrics, like ETX or energy usage, leading to better load balancing in the network. To implement and evaluate the proposed metric compared to other RPL metrics, ContikiOS and COOJA simulator are used. Extensive simulations have been carried out in a systematic way resulting in a detailed analysis of the introduced metric namely W-metric, expected transmission count (ETX) and objective function zero (OF0) that uses hop-count as a routing metric. The analysis and comparison are based on five performance parameters, which are throughput, packet delivery ratio (PDR), latency, average queue length, and power consumption. Simulation results show that the introduced W-metric has a good performance compared to other RPL metrics with regards to performance parameters mentioned above. At the same time, the results show that its latency performance is comparable with other RPL routing metrics. In a sample simulation of 500 seconds with 25 nodes and with nodes sending packets periodically to the network root at a rate of 1 packet per 4 seconds, W-metric showed a very efficient throughput of 5.16 kbps, an increase of8.2% compared to ETX. Results showed that it has a packet delivery ratio of 93.3%, which is higher compared to 83.3% for ETX and 74.2% for OF0. Average queue length of 0.48 packet shows improvement of 15.8% better than ETX. In addition, it exhibits an energy consumption of 5.16 mW which is 2.1% less than ETX. Overall, W-metric appears to be a promising alternative to ETX and OF0 as it selects routes that are more efficient by working on load balancing of the network and by considering the link characteristics.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: IOT, RPL, LLNs, Queue backlog, Objective function
Taxonomy: By Subject > College of Engineering > Electrical Engineering > Communication
By Subject > College of Engineering > Electrical Engineering > Computer
Local Content Hub: Subjects > College of Engineering
Depositing User: Eza Eliana Abdul Wahid
Date Deposited: 14 Dec 2022 05:08
Last Modified: 14 Dec 2022 05:08
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